Thursday, May 21, 2020

Business Plan - 3324 Words

DeVry University 01 CHAPTER CONTENTS Business Marketing Plan for My Grocery Store Bartholomew Albert BUSN MARKETING PLAN B. Table of Contents Pages 1. Executive Summary 1.0 2. Company Description 0.5 3. Strategic Focus and Plan 1.0 a. Mission/Vision b. Goals c. Core Competency and Sustainable Competitive Advantage 4. Situation Analysis 1.0 a. SWOT analysis Internal Strengths and Weaknesses: Management, Offerings, Marketing, Personnel, Finance, Manufacturing, and Research and Development (R amp; D) External Opportunities and Threats: Consumer/Social, Economic, Technological, Competitive, and Legal/Regulatory b. Industry Analysis c. Competitor Analysis d. Company Analysis†¦show more content†¦Those feeling the most pain from rising food prices were consumers in low-income nations where food purchases account for a very large portion of monthly household budgets. This is a threat to me because if people in my area don’t have a high paying job than they won’t be shopping with convince they well be shopping for price. Demographics should be one of the first things that you take into consideration. Who are the people shopping in your store? Are they interested in buying organic foods? Study the buying habits and preferences of your customers. And, then give them what they want. In a grocery store you really cant base anything off of one customer. At a grocery store you have to look at every customer as an individual because they are all different. The top two influences that the consumers will choose my store over others is that I am offering online ordering with delivery. Also the other things that makes my business different than others is that I will have a variety of foods even from different cultures as well. These two things are amazing to have and not to many other companies offer that. I personally think that the ordering online and delivery is going to be a big hit because during the winter not many people want to get out of the house and this way they don’t have too. Also buy havin g different culture foods and needs in my store it will attract more customers and a variety of people.Show MoreRelatedBusiness Plan For A Business Essay1708 Words   |  7 Pagesbrand-new business, expand an existing company, or get financing for a business venture, you will need to write a business plan. A business plan not only lends your business a sense of credibility, but also helps you to cover all your bases, increasing your chances of success. Although writing a business plan can be a lengthy, intimidating project, it is not necessarily difficult. Here is an overview of how to write a successful business plan. What to Include in Your Business Plan Your businessRead MoreBusiness Plan For A New Venture1355 Words   |  6 PagesA business plan can be used for beginning a new business, to create a more profitable business or for consideration of new services and ideas. A business plan is a written document that gives details on a business idea or venture and present the outlook of the business over a number of years. This plan will guide the business project management and operations, assist in vital decisions and measure performance. There are many types of business plans and not one of them is considered a universal planRead MoreEssay about Creating a Business Plan1119 Words   |  5 Pagesyou must have guidelines, so to speak, to know where you are heading in the future. That is why before you can start a business you need to draw up a detailed business plan. Business plans are considered blueprints. A business plan is what is needed to get your business off the ground and to attract potential investors. A business plan is way to show that you are in the business to make money. Introduce the company and the product/service idea for the new venture. Triple S Night Club is a new companyRead MoreBusiness Plan For An Casual Dining Mexican Restaurant1804 Words   |  8 PagesThe critical analysis essay is based on the business plan of an upcoming casual dining Mexican restaurant in an upmarket locality of Benowa Gardens, Gold Coast, Queensland. The restaurant is called Burrito Bar, which specialises in modern Mexican food along with alcoholic drinks and operates on a franchising model. The business plan was made by one Mr.Paddu for the purpose of procuring a bank loan/private funding to kick-start the project. The business plan follows the general format used in the restaurant/hospitalityRead MoreRenee Business Plan5082 Words   |  21 PagesBusiness Plan for a Startup Business The business plan consists of a narrative and several financial worksheets. The narrative template is the body of the business plan. It contains more than 150 questions divided into several sections. Work through the sections in any order that you want, except for the Executive Summary, which should be done last. Skip any questions that do not apply to your type of business. When you are finished writing your first draft, you’ll have a collection of small essaysRead MoreBusiness Plan For A Business1546 Words   |  7 Pagesenterprise, especially a business, usually with considerable initiative or risk†. They are usually characterized as people with greatly valued self-reliance, with high optimism and people who who strive for distinction through excellence. I am interested in starting my own basketball business and becoming an entrepreneur. In order to start a business I need a business plan. From research, I have learned that my business plan needs to have an executive summary, identification of my business, financial recordsRead MoreBusiness Plan For A Business840 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Business plans are statement of a business goals, reason they are attainable and plans on meeting it’ (FoxBuisness, 2013). A business plan maps the course and gives a detail plan on how these goals are achievable. It is also important to establish a solid business plan for funding. Some small business use venture capital, bank loans, personal funds, and private investors as sources of funding. The business plan must therefore, sell investors. A well-written convincing business plan can buy investorsRead MoreBusiness Plan1439 Words   |  6 PagesBusiness Plan What is Blueberry Nights? Type: bar and restaurant for young people Category: II. class Service method: plate service Menu type: A’la Carte Opening hours: Sunday to Wednesday 10:00-22:00 Thursday to Saturday 13:00-05:00 No day off Target market: students, tourists and residents Location: Budapest, Margit kà ¶rà ºt Few steps from Margaret Island Easy to reach by tram Seating capacity: 120 (80+40) 1st floor: kitchen area, 80 seated restaurant, bar, armchairsRead Morebusiness plan5494 Words   |  22 Pagesbecause we as a young generation that want to open new shop sold the â€Å"Keropok Leko†. OBJECTIVE OF THE ORGANIZATION Every business opportunity begins with the existence of various customers needs and wants for particular product or service. A need is something that is basic in life such as food, clothes and shelter. Therefore, our companies take these advantages and venture a business based on food industries. Our main activity is to manufacture keropok lekor that is made from fish paste, flour, and saltsRead MoreBusiness Plan For A Business1866 Words   |  8 Pages Business Plan Buiness model in theory and practice according to Wikipedia is used for a broad range of informal and forma l descriptions to represent the core aspects of a business, including the purposes of that business, its process, target customers, of ferings, strategies , infrastructure, organizational structures, trading practice, and operational processes and policies . Below, we would look at two kinds of business model (franchise and tradition al business) , their pros and cons, o r their

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Personal Statement Becoming A Leader - 1220 Words

â€Å"She knew you would make the right decisions,† is what my sister said to me as the room of onlookers glared awaiting my response. Amidst the grief of the moment, I struggled to grasp ahold of my abilities, and thoughts, resisting the urge to scream at the universe and engage my right to squander in my grief. In reality, I was the youngest sibling, holding the accountability of being an active leader. This was not your everyday decision making process, it was the planning of burial arrangements after the loss of our mother. Rapidly, decoding through the streams of my emotions, I collected my strength and continued with the process. In the end, I survived by drawing upon my emotional intelligence, intuition, and practical skills. There†¦show more content†¦I learned how to interact with diverse populations. In the course of work, I was exposed to program planning, development, and evaluation procedures from skilled professionals within the agency. My achievements on this project led to two promotions in a five year period. Promoted to a Unit Supervisor in 2009, I supervised a diverse team responsible for determining eligibility for OWF, Food Assistance and Medicaid. We achieved our core responsibility of meeting payment accuracy and timeliness standards. I also participated as a member of the resource committee, responsible for reviewing and developing departmental policies. Along with serving as the co-chair of the 2011 annual United Way campaign. During this campaign season we organized first time events such as â€Å"networking over mock-tails†, breakfast waffle bar, and food trucks resulting in an increasing in the annual fundraising total. As a result of success and demonstration of strong leadership in prior roles I was promoted to a Division Manager in 2012, responsible for managing the Call Center. The Call Center is a very critical component to customer service, but was at the time operating with a less than efficient message taking business model. Challenged by understaffing, ineffective call routing, and clerical staff with limited knowledge and proficiency. I willingly accept the task of realigning operations to meet our core mission of improved customer service.Show MoreRelatedPersonal Statement : Becoming A Leader790 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Becoming a leader is a skill that grows throughout one’s life. Individuals are not born leaders rather the skills and traits are developed over time. For me personally, I have broken down my life’s leadership training into three phases, the early years, my teen years, and my adult years. Each segment is unique and builds for the others. Every phase has been absolutely necessary to build my leadership philosophy. Leader in My Early Years of Life I was born to older parents. Read MorePersonal Leadership Statement: Becoming an Educational Leader983 Words   |  4 PagesHome Economic teachers to some seem strange. In retrospect my personal values, leadership strengths and leadership lens validate many of these career choices in the past and will continue to play an important part in my future as an educational leader. My â€Å"five top personal values† according to the â€Å"Core Leadership Values Identification† are â€Å"Creativity, Fun, Learning, Relationships and Relevance† (Core leadership values, ). These personal values have dictated much of my career path choices and helpRead MoreAnalysis Of Becoming The Boss By Linda Hill1050 Words   |  5 PagesAnalysis of â€Å"Becoming the Boss† Linda Hill’s article â€Å"Becoming the Boss† details several helpful and important ideas for first time leaders and managers to consider. My first overview of the article included thoughts that the article had a somewhat discouraging and negative outlook on new managers. Hill makes the statement throughout the article that the transition into becoming a leader or new manager is often very traumatic and the failures of the new managers are not surprising. After a moreRead MoreLeadership Questionnaire For Becoming A Leader1261 Words   |  6 PagesReasons for becoming a leader vary for every individual from such as leading to become superior or for the respect that comes with being a great leader. The world is full of great leaders who strive to make their mark on the world. An effective leader focuses on value, culture and capability to lead those within an organization and journey includes the team along with mentoring a replacement in the ever-changing healthcare environment (Al-Sawai, 2013). The role as a leader brings along responsibilityRead MoreChartered Accountant1097 Words   |  5 Pagesevaluating financial statements, consulting, preparing budgets and tax returns and analyzing financial information in order to help them with business strategies, auditing services, management, and maximizing production. Chartered Accountants are recognized as leaders of the Canadian business society. The intense programs of education and training have shaped each CA to become an evident leader with financial expertise to help any business grow and succeed in society. Becoming a CA The careerRead MoreSelf-Assessment of Emotional Intelligence Essay651 Words   |  3 Pagescharacteristic in becoming a good leader. â€Å"Emotional intelligence is the ability to manage oneself and ones relationships in mature and constructive ways† (Kinicki Kreitner, 2009, p.137).Being a good leader entails more than just being smart; leaders need to be able to connect to their employees emotionally and empathetically. Organizations today not only look for leaders with the skills, but leaders that can emotionally connect to employees to obtain the organization’s goal. â€Å"Leaders have alwaysRead MoreAn Individual s Level Of Communication1338 Words   |  6 Pagesskill/motivation to take charge and the ability to manage subordinates, based on their level of communication. I believe that the survey’s outcomes were favorable and accurate in my case. Considering statements such as â€Å"I’m optimistic about life, and I can see beyond temporary setb acks and problems† and â€Å"I think that personal feelings shouldn t be allowed to get in the way of performance and productivity† are some of my main ideologies that I apply. For example, I worked at a computer repair shop and workingRead MoreEssay on Effective Communication Skills1315 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction An important step to becoming an effective leader is to develop effective communication skills. Communication is the transmission of meaning from one person to another or to many people, whether verbally or non-verbally (Barrett, 2006). Effective communication enables leaders to lead. Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that the sender intended to covey. As a leader, studying the communication process is important. CommunicationRead MoreJohn W. Wright s Coach Wooden 1683 Words   |  7 PagesWriters Gardner and Wooden explain that an organization, its leader, and its followers can only be strong if there is an alignment of moral standards and values, as well as open communication. In Coach John Wooden’s book, he states that having high morals and values dictates the capabilities to make responsible and appropriate decisions, which constitute good character. Coach Wooden states, â€Å"a good explanation of character is simple: respect for yourself, respect for others, respect for the gameRead MoreRunning Head: Group 3 Db12 Resilient Leadership1. Group1345 Words   |  6 PagesPorter Liberty University Resilient Leadership Throughout this course, most of the subject matter focused on, or related to, the art and science of successful management and leadership. Robert Dees’ book ‘Resilient Leaders’ is about the qualities it takes to not only be a successful leader, but to bounce back when times are difficult. True leadership stands the tests that time throws its way. The takeaways and lessons learned are valuable in every aspect of life which involves working with others and

Cause and Effect Essay Marijuana in Schools Free Essays

Cause and Effect Essay Marijuana can be found on every college campus in Canada and is the drug of choice coming in right behind alcohol. The Department of Justice Canada conducted a survey and found that, â€Å"almost one-third (29%) of college students had reported using marijuana during the previous 12 months of 1998. (http://www. We will write a custom essay sample on Cause and Effect Essay: Marijuana in Schools or any similar topic only for you Order Now justice. gc. ca/eng/pi/rs/rep-rap/2002/qa02_2-qr02_2/p2. html). According to a similar study, the majority of students on college campuses that use marijuana will also participate in other high risk activities. This destructive behavior includes things such as cigarette smoking, binge drinking and sex while intoxicated. Marijuana is so easy to obtain and can be very tempting to experiment with, especially if you have already had a few drinks and your thinking is impaired. Marijuana causes many internal and external problem for a college student, Marijuana can lead to academic problems, addiction, and physical/mental issues, marijuana can also lead to serious problems with the law. All these issues can potentially damage the outcome of a student’s future. Marijuana prices have a major effect on the amount of use by college students at any given point in time. Although it may be more socially available on college campuses, the price still determines the usage. The fact that marijuana is illegal in Canada helps to keep the price at a seemingly higher level. This artificial price illusion regulates the buying, selling and usage among college students. Compared to alcohol, marijuana is much more accessible, especially on college campuses. Getting alcohol requires an ID or someone with an ID. Getting marijuana only requires someone that supplies the drug. So even though it is illegal, marijuana is seemingly more common. Since possession of marijuana is illegal, it is not surprising that the consequences can be so debilitating. While attending college with federal financial aid, you run the risk of jeopardizing your federal aid by being charged with a misdemeanor. Possession of marijuana is considered a misdemeanor and if you are charged, the federal government has the right to take away any government aid that you were granted. So not only do you have a record for possession, but more than likely you are going through the judicial system of the college or university and may be suspended or expelled. Marijuana use can also lead to academic problems. Students that participate in these behaviors have a tendency to spend more time socializing than concentrating on what they should be, their academics. These students spend more time partying than studying which greatly affects their academic performance. Two of the physical effects of marijuana that directly affect academics are difficulty in problem solving and poor memory. Students may become less and less motivated to be involved in campus activities, and also may become decreasingly concerned with their long-term goals and career plans. Users may have a hard time limiting their use and may build a tolerance to the drug. This tolerance means that the user now requires a larger amount of the drug to get the same effect, and may develop problems with their jobs and personal relationships because the drug becomes such a major part of his or her life. Many students see marijuana as a â€Å"recreational† drug. With increased â€Å"recreational† use, the drug can become addictive. It is not so much an addiction, but a psychological dependence for smoking, and that feeling of intoxication. However, besides being illegal, marijuana may contain unknown contaminants that can severely harm your brain and lungs. With all of the risks of the drug, it is amazing that people still use it â€Å"recreationally†. It is common for students to first experiment with their peers, whether it be a friend, sibling or just an acquaintance. The peer pressure is the most likely cause of first time users. Physical effects of marijuana are different according to the way in which it is taken, where it is used, the expectations and or ideals of the user, and whether or not it is used in conjunction with other drugs. Users often have chronic bronchitis and increased chances of getting lung cancer. Someone who smokes marijuana regularly may have many of the same respiratory problems that tobacco smokers have. Marijuana also affects the brain, researchers say that THC changes the way in which sensory information gets into and is acted on by the hippocampus. The immediate effects of marijuana other than a feeling of intoxication are: bloodshot eyes, anxiety, confusion and paranoia, loss of coordination, and increased appetite. Mental effects show that the drug can impair or reduce short-term memory, alter sense of time, and reduce ability to do things which require concentration and coordination. Marijuana’s effect on a student can tally up to some very serious consequences that a student can suffer, the cause and effect of marijuana lead to problems of addiction, health problems, trouble with the law and poor academic performances. How to cite Cause and Effect Essay: Marijuana in Schools, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

The Ku Klux Klan

In this paper, there is going to be a discussion on Ku Klux Klan, in particular, whether this organization is a peaceful or it is a terrorist one. It is going to be argued that going by the present day standards and definitions, the KKK could be classified as a terrorist organization.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Ku Klux Klan specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to support this statement, the history of the Ku Klux Klan or KKK is going to be considered by looking at the activities they have constantly been engaging in over time. KKK was a secretly organized group that engaged in violent activities. The group first came up in the course of the Reconstruction period in Alabama. It carried out its operations beginning from the year 1867. According to Lutz Lutz (2009), the Ku Klux Klan is an example of an effective conservative terrorist organization (Lutz Lutz, 2009). The initial KKK and organizations of the same nature that came up under various names were prosperous in the combined struggles they undertook in assisting the white elite to recapture power over local as well as state governments â€Å"in the old Confederacy† (Lutz Lutz, 2009, p.14). It is pointed out that through employing intimidation and terror, the freed slaves as well as the Republicans were gradually excluded and effectually demoted to the political limits of the society (Chalmers, 1965). The attempts to ensure preservation of having equal rights by using the ‘criminal justice system’ did not succeed for the reason that it was not possible to get convictions. It is reported that intimidation of witnesses was carried out, and the judges did not accept to serve because they feared the risks that were involved (Chalmers, 1965). Such promotion of terror made it possible for KKK â€Å"to reserve the decisions of the Civil War as far as political control of local and state government† (L utz Lutz, 2009,. p.14).Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is reported that the target of the Klan were the people who had been set free, black school teachers, the missionaries in the north and the white Republicans (â€Å"Ku Klux Klan in Alabama†, 2010). This group hardly carried out their terrorism activities during daytime and preferred to carry out operations in the secluded rural areas during the night. They would target a particular house and go there during the night and surround it, break the door and pull out the occupants to the backyard. They would then torment the men by beating them up and the women were sexually assaulted (â€Å"Ku Klux Klan in Alabama†, 2010). The KKK carried out their operations â€Å"as the military wing of Democratic Party in Alabama† (â€Å"Ku Klux Klan in Alabama†, 2010, p.1). Even if a small number of Democrats engaged in praising the group publicly, a large number of the leaders of the party were the KKK members and the party renounced the brutal acts committed by the organization (â€Å"Ku Klux Klan in Alabama†, 2010). The main objective of this organization was to stop the Republican Party development and the group attained this objective by engaging in intimidating and beating up those people who supported the black party (â€Å"Ku Klux Klan in Alabama†, 2010). Taking the case in Alabama, the appearance of this group in the year 1868 contributed to an instant and considerable decrease in the number of the Republican voters. At the ‘gubernatorial election’ which took place in 1870, the KKK released â€Å"a wave of terror in such Republican-heavy counties as Greene and Sumter and kept thousands of potential voters away from the polls† (â€Å"Ku Klux Klan in Alabama†, 2010, p.1). Having the support of this group, Robert B. Lindsay, who was a candidate for the Democratic Party, obtained a narrow win over the Republican candidate. During the same year, the KKK was able to help the Democratic Party to be in power again in parliament (â€Å"Ku Klux Klan in Alabama†, 2010, p.1). The Ku Klux Klan also engaged in opposing several social changes, which were a product of freedom that took place in Alabama. As a routine, the group engaged in forcing out the teachers in the northern schools (â€Å"Ku Klux Klan in Alabama†, 2010, p.1).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Ku Klux Klan specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They also engaged in burning several churches as well as schools, which were places where people who had been freed, held their political rallies with an intention of preventing the establishing of the black political goals as well as religious and educational ones (â€Å"Ku Klux Klan in Alabama†, 2010). Later in time, the moment the â€Å"o ld elite† returned to power, the reason for the Ku Klux Klan to vanish consisted in the fact that the group was not needed anymore. The authorities of the state could now be charged with the responsibility of engaging in the maintaining the control that they had over the Blacks. Gurr points out that in a situation where the state authority did not succeed, lynchings were used to threaten the black people so that they could not go beyond the social boundaries that were put in place (Gurr, 1989). The terrorism campaign that was initiated by KKK group was perpetuated by other groups that were less formal but still carried out their activities equally effectively for a long period of time. The KKK appeared again in the year 1915 and also after the Second World War ending (Webb, 2002). When this group came up again in 1915, it remained to be anti-black the same as it had been before. However, at that particular time it was more inclined towards being an anti-foreign organization (L utz Lutz, 2009). The group was against foreign ideas and particularly those ideas that were deemed to be radical. They were also against any person who was not willing to abide by the fundamentally Protestant religious principles as well as morals which were dominant in their membership views (Chalmers, 1965, p.33). This group was not limited to the states in the south despite the fact it was most powerful in this area. In a large number of other regions, the group was effective in employing violence and terror in the enforcement of its position in order to ensure maintenance of social influence over the black people among other target groups (Webb, 2002). Using lynching as a means to attain social control received public backing among the Whites (Hofstadter, 1970). This group mostly vanished by the period the U.S engaged in the Second World War. The last form of this group appeared again after the Second World War coming to an end with the intention of responding to the struggle f or civil rights and it still engaged in the acts of terrorism (Lutz Lutz, 2009).Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, it is pointed out that at this point the group could not be regarded as being a successful group because it did not succeed in achieving any of the goals it had set of continual social control as well as discrimination (Lutz Lutz, 2009). Basing on the discussion, it can be concluded and highlighted that the Ku Klux Klan was actually a terrorist organization. This is found to be true when the organization’s activities are considered basing on the present day standards as well as definitions. This organization was formed with an intention of engaging in various violent activities which were intended to terrorize some particular quarters of the American society. The organization came up and then disappeared, however, appeared again twice in the course of time. However, considering the activities they engaged in at different times in history, they were actually terrorist acts. Several authors that have been presented in this discussion kept referring to the organization as a terrorist group and none of them at any particular point referred to it as being a peaceful organization. They tortured people, raped women, burned down churches and schools among other terrorist activities. The group was against foreign ideas and particularly those deemed to be radical. This group was not limited to the states in the south even if it was most powerful in the area but also operated in a large number of other regions. The group was effective in employing violence and terror in the enforcement of the position they held in order to ensure there was maintaining of social influence on the black people, foreigners as well as radicals. References Chalmers, D. M. (1965). Hooded Americanism: The History of the Ku Klux Klan. New York: Quadrangle Books. Gurr, T. R. (1989). Political Terrorism: Historical Antecedents and Contemporary Trends. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Hofstadter, R. (1970). Reflections on Violence in the United States. New York, N.Y: Alfred A. Knopf. Ku Klux Klan in Alabama during the Reconstruction Era, (2010). Retrieved from Lutz, J.M. Lutz, B.J. (2009). How successful is terrorism? New York, N.Y: Forum on Public Policy. Webb, C. (2002). Politics, Society, and the Klan in Alabama, 1915-1949 by Glenn Feldman. Journal of American Studies, 36(2), 347-348. This essay on The Ku Klux Klan was written and submitted by user Corban R. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

The Roman King Ancus Martius

The Roman King Ancus Martius King Ancus Martius (or Ancus Marcius) is thought to have ruled Rome from 640-617. Ancus Martius, the fourth king of Rome, was the grandson of the second Roman king, Numa Pompilius. Legend credits him with building a bridge on wooden piles across the Tiber River, the Pons Sublicius, the first bridge across the Tiber. It is often claimed that Ancus Martius founded the port of Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber River. Cary and Scullard say this is unlikely, but he probably extended Roman territory and gained control of the salt-pans on the south side of the river by Ostia. Cary and Scullard also doubt the legend that Ancus Martius incorporated the Janiculum Hill into Rome, but do not doubt that he established a bridgehead upon it. Ancus Martius is also thought to have waged war on other Latin cities. Alternate Spellings: Ancus Marcius Examples: T.J. Cornell says Ennius and Lucretius called Ancus Martius Ancus the Good. Sources: Cary and Scullard: A History of Rome T.J. Cornell: The Beginnings of Rome. Ancient Rome Glossary Go to Other Ancient / Classical History Glossary pages beginning with the letter a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v wxyz

Monday, March 2, 2020

The Nuremberg Trials

The Nuremberg Trials The Nuremberg Trials were a series of trials that occurred in post-World War II Germany to provide a platform for justice against accused Nazi war criminals.   The first attempt to punish the perpetrators was conducted by the International Military Tribunal (IMT) in the German city of Nuremberg, beginning on November 20, 1945. On trial were 24 of Nazi Germany’s major war criminals, including Hermann Goering, Martin Bormann, Julius Streicher, and Albert Speer.   Of the 22 that were ultimately tried, 12 were sentenced to death. The term â€Å"Nuremberg Trials† would eventually include this original trial of Nazi leaders as well as 12 subsequent trials that lasted until 1948.   The Holocaust Other War Crimes During World War II, the Nazis perpetrated an unprecedented reign of hatred against Jews and others deemed undesirable by the Nazi state.   This time period, known as the Holocaust, resulted in the deaths of six million Jews and five million others, including Roma and Sinti (Gypsies), the handicapped, Poles, Russian POWs, Jehovah’s witnesses, and political dissidents.   Victims were interned in concentration camps and also killed in death camps or by other means, such as mobile killing squads.   A small number of individuals survived these horrors but their lives were changed forever by the horrors inflicted upon them by the Nazi State. Crimes against individuals deemed undesirable were not the only charges being levied against the Germans in the post-war era. World War II saw an additional 50 million civilians killed throughout the war and many countries blamed the German military for their deaths. Some of these deaths were part of the new â€Å"total war tactics,† yet others were specifically targeted, such as the massacre of Czech civilians in Lidice and the death of Russian POWs at the Katyn Forest Massacre.   Ã‚   Should There Be a Trial or Just Hang Them? In the months following liberation, many military officers and Nazi officials were held in prisoner of war camps throughout the four Allied zones of Germany.  Ã‚   The countries that administrated those zones (Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States) began to discuss the best way to handle the post-war treatment of those who were suspected of war crimes.  Ã‚  Ã‚   Winston Churchill, the Prime Minister of England, initially felt that all those who were alleged to have committed war crimes should be hanged.   The Americans, French, and Soviets felt that trials were necessary and worked to convince Churchill of the importance of these proceedings.   Once Churchill assented, a decision was made to move forward with the establishment of the International Military Tribunal that would be convened in the city of Nuremberg in the fall of 1945. The Major Players of the Nuremberg Trial The Nuremberg Trials officially began with the first proceedings, which opened on November 20, 1945.   The trial was held in the Palace of Justice in the German city of Nuremberg, which had played host to major Nazi Party rallies during the Third Reich.   The city was also the namesake of the infamous 1935 Nuremberg race laws levied against Jews. The International Military Tribunal was composed of a judge and an alternate judge from each of the four main Allied Powers.   The judges and alternates were as follows: United States – Frances Biddle (Main) and John Parker (Alternate)Britain – Sir Geoffrey Lawrence (Main) (President Judge) and Sir Norman Birkett (Alternate)France – Henri Donnedieu de Vabres (Main) and Robert Falco (Alternate)Soviet Union –Major   General Iona Nikitchenko (Main) and Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Volchkov   (Alternate) The prosecution was led by U.S.   Supreme Court Justice, Robert Jackson.     Ã‚  He was joined by Britain’s Sir Hartley Shawcross, France’s Francois de Menthon (eventually replaced by Frenchman Auguste Champetier de Ribes), and the Soviet Union’s Roman Rudenko, a Soviet Lieutenant-General.   Jackson’s opening statement set the somber yet progressive tone for the trial and its unprecedented nature.   His brief opening address spoke of the importance of the trial, not only for the restoration of Europe but also for its lasting impact on the future of justice in the world.   He also mentioned the need to educate the world about the horrors perpetrated during the war and felt that the trial would provide a platform to accomplish this task. Each defendant was permitted to have representation, either from a group of court-appointed defense attorneys or a defense attorney of the defendant’s choosing.   Evidence vs. The Defense This first trial lasted a total of ten months.   The prosecution built its case largely around evidence compiled by the Nazis themselves, as they had carefully documented many of their misdeeds.   Witnesses to the atrocities were also brought to the stand, as were the accused.   The defense cases were primarily centered around the concept of the â€Å"Fuhrerprinzip† (Fuhrer principle).   According to this concept, the accused were following orders issued by Adolf Hitler, and the penalty for not following those orders was death.   Since Hitler, himself, was no longer alive to invalidate these claims, the defense was hoping that it would carry weight with the judicial panel.   Some of the defendants also claimed that the tribunal itself had no legal standing due to its unprecedented nature. The Charges As the Allied Powers worked to gather evidence, they also had to determine who should be included in the first round of proceedings.  Ã‚   It was ultimately determined that 24 defendants would be charged and put on trial beginning in November 1945; these were some of the most notorious of Nazi’s war criminals. The accused would be indicted on one or more of the following counts:1.   Crimes of Conspiracy:   The accused was alleged to have participated in the creation and/or implementation of a joint plan or conspired to assist those in charge of executing a joint plan whose goal involved crimes against the peace. 2.   Crimes Against the Peace:   The accused was alleged to have committed acts that including planning for, preparation of, or initiation of aggressive warfare. 3.   War Crimes:   The accused allegedly violated previously established rules of warfare, including the killing of civilians, POWs, or malicious destruction of civilian property. 4.   Crimes Against Humanity:   The accused was alleged to have committed acts of deportation, enslavement, torture, murder, or other inhumane acts against civilians before or during the war. Defendants on Trial and Their Sentences A total of 24 defendants were originally slated to be put on trial during this initial Nuremberg trial, but only 22 were actually tried (Robert Ley had committed suicide and Gustav Krupp von Bohlen was deemed unfit to stand trial).   Of the 22, one wasn’t in custody;   Martin Bormann (Nazi Party Secretary) was charged in absentia.   (It was later discovered that Bormann had died in May 1945.) Although the list of defendants was long, two key individuals were missing.   Both Adolf Hitler and his propaganda minister, Joseph Goebbels, had committed suicide as the war was coming to an end.   It was decided that there was enough evidence regarding their deaths, unlike Bormann’s, that they were not placed on trial. The trial resulted in a total of 12 death sentences, all of which were administered on October 16, 1946, with one exception Herman Goering committed suicide by cyanide the night before the hangings were to take place.   Three of the accused were sentenced to life in prison. Four individuals were sentenced to jail terms ranging from ten to twenty years.   An additional three individuals were acquitted of all charges. Name Position Found Guilty of Counts Sentenced Action Taken Martin Bormann (in absentia) Deputy Fhrer 3,4 Death Was missing at time of trial. Later it was discovered Bormann had died in 1945. Karl Dnitz Supreme Commander of the Navy (1943) and German Chancellor 2,3 10 Years in Prison Served time. Died in 1980. Hans Frank Governor-General of Occupied Poland 3,4 Death Hanged on October 16, 1946. Wilhelm Frick Foreign Minister of the Interior 2,3,4 Death Hanged on October 16, 1946. Hans Fritzsche Head of the Radio Division of the Propaganda Ministry Not Guilty Acquitted In 1947, sentenced to 9 years in work camp; released after 3 years. Died in 1953. Walther Funk President of the Reichsbank (1939) 2,3,4 Life in Prison Early release in 1957. Died in 1960. Hermann Gring Reich Marshal All Four Death Committed suicide on October 15, 1946 (three hours before he was to be executed). Rudolf Hess Deputy to the Fhrer 1,2 Life in Prison Died in prison on August 17, 1987. Alfred Jodl Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces All Four Death Hanged on October 16, 1946. In 1953, a German appeals court posthumously found Jodl not guilty of breaking international law. Ernst Kaltenbrunner Chief of the Security Police, SD, and RSHA 3,4 Death Chief of the Security Police, SD, and RSHA. Wilhelm Keitel Chief of the High Command of the Armed Forces All Four Death Requested to be shot as a soldier. Request denied. Hanged on October 16, 1946. Konstantin von Neurath Minister of Foreign Affairs and Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia All Four 15 Years in Prison Early release in 1954. Died in 1956. Franz von Papen Chancellor (1932) Not Guilty Acquitted In 1949, a German court sentenced Papen to 8 years in work camp; time was considered already served. Died in 1969. Erich Raeder Supreme Commander of the Navy (1928-1943) 2,3,4 Life in Prison Early release in 1955. Died in 1960. Joachim von Ribbentrop Reich Foreign Minister All Four Death Hanged on October 16, 1946. Alfred Rosenberg Party Philosopher and Reich Minister for the Eastern Occupied Area All Four Death Party Philosopher and Reich Minister for the Eastern Occupied Area Fritz Sauckel Plenipotentiary for Labor Allocation 2,4 Death Hanged on October 16, 1946. Hjalmar Schacht Minister of Economics and President of the Reichsbank (1933-1939) Not Guilty Acquitted Denazification court sentenced Schacht to 8 years in a work camp; released in 1948. Died in 1970. Baldur von Schirach Fhrer of the Hitler Youth 4 20 Years in Prison Served his time. Died in 1974. Arthur Seyss-Inquart Minister of the Interior and Reich Governor of Austria 2,3,4 Death Minister of the Interior and Reich Governor of Austria Albert Speer Minister of Armaments and War Production 3,4 20 Years Served his time. Died in 1981. Julius Streicher Founder of Der Strmer 4 Death Hanged on October 16, 1946. Subsequent Trials at Nuremberg Although the initial trial held at Nuremberg is the most famous, it was not the only trial held there.   The Nuremberg Trials also included a series of twelve trials held in the Palace of Justice following the conclusion of the initial trial.  Ã‚   The judges in the subsequent trials were all American, as the other Allied powers wished to focus on the massive task of rebuilding needed after World War II. Additional trials in the series included: The Doctor’s TrialThe Milch TrialThe Judge’s TrialThe Pohl TrialThe Flick TrialThe IG Farben TrialThe Hostages TrialThe RuSHA TrialThe Einsatzgruppen TrialThe Krupp TrialThe Ministries TrialThe High Command Trial The Legacy of Nuremberg The Nuremberg Trials were unprecedented in many ways. They were the first to attempt to hold government leaders responsible for crimes committed while implementing their policies. They were the first to share the horrors of the Holocaust with the world on a large scale. The Nuremberg Trials also established the principal that one could not escape justice by merely claiming to have been following orders of a government entity. In relation to war crimes and crimes against humanity, the Nuremberg Trials would have a profound impact on the future of justice. They set the standards for judging the actions of other nations in future wars and genocides, ultimately paving the way for the foundation of the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Court, which are based at The Hague, Netherlands.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

History of american stock car racing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

History of american stock car racing - Essay Example In fact, the sport started off with extremely inauspicious beginnings, and only later evolved into the multi-billion dollar enterprise of the 21st century. This essay examines the history of American stock car racing and considers the factors that contributed to its evolution from an event associated with bootlegging to one of the most watched sports in the United States. Although stock car racing is more popular today the ever it can be traced back to inauspicious beginnings during the 1920s. From 1920 to 1933 the Prohibition Period made it illegal to produce, sell, and drink liquor, so a prosperous bootlegging industry developed. Many people called bootleggers would illegally run whiskey to market places often racing at high speeds to outrun the police. In an effort to increase their efficiency and limit their chances of being apprehended bootleggers began to develop enhanced, or ‘souped-up’, engines and suspensions for the cars they drove. As the faster vehicle greatly increased the chances of evading the United States Department of Justice these drivers were termed ‘moonshine runners’.1 David â€Å"Turbo† Thompson, an associate professor at Loras College in Dubuque, Iowa, who also raced stock cars stated, â€Å"Runners built their reputations by outsmarting and outdriving the law.†2 As much of the alcohol w as produced in the Appalachian region this primarily became a southern activity. In 1933, when the prohibition ended, stock car racing was becoming very popular. After Prohibition was repealed a great deal of the runners’ business halted, but soon many regions developed an affinity for moonshine alcohol. Moonshine running soon became a recreational activity and races along dirt roads and similar tracks began occurring throughout the southern states, most notably the Wilkes County region of North Carolina. The cars continued to improve and eventually races on Sundays were organized. A number of moonshine runners gained great acclaim,